Chronological Historical References
to the dynamic history of the horsemen of Western Asia.

Early prehistoric background references to the history of the near east & central Asia

In the whole Eurasian steppes can be found a new foreign element coming from the south west bringing a higher culture. This new race/nation brought with it animal husbandry and agriculture. They also brought he use of metals and bronze to the Cro-Magnon type local inhabitants. [Sumir-Hurri-Elamite newcomers]
/A. Randa, Handbuch der Weltheschichte./

They also brought with them the basis of the so called Scythian Art, which is based on the art and mythology of the aboriginals of Elam (Luristan) and Hurrian (Van kingdom). Hurrians were famous for the fact that their art and religion reproduced the much earlier Sumerian one, as though they were a late rebirth of this once great people from the south.

5500 BC - 2455 BC Sumerian culture.
The first cities, literature, written laws, astronomical calculations, schools, pyramids, etc. The Sumerians spoke a Ural-Altaic like language which in vocabulary and grammar shows many similarities to modern Ural-Altaians. Racially they were also unlike their Semitic neighbors.

3800-3200 BC Uruk Period of Sumir history
I.e.3800-3200 Urukkorszak, Szumír műveltség.

2470-2326 Accadian Semitic period in Mesopotamia
The records are filled with complaints from the Sumir inhabitants many of whom probably sought refuge amongst their earlier colonies in Central Asia and other areas as well. Every new Accad king's reign involved the putting down of new revolts.

2326-2256 Guti-Elamite rule in Mesopotamia
The Elamite language is also -like Sumerian- related to the early Ural-Altaic languages in structure and vocabulary. A few early linguists had claimed that it had special affinity to Finno_Ugrian and Hungarian.
/ A. J. Booth , "The Trilingual Inscriptions", New York 92 /

The Sumerians are able to reestablish their rule and shake of the Guti-Elamite rule and Accadian rule for a time. However large scale influx of Amorite herdsmen create conflicts and destruction just as the occasional attacks of the Elamites.

ca 2000 BC Linguists estimate the time at which Hungarian broke away from the neighboring Ural-Altaic & Finn-Ugor language family to become an independent language. This is based on the many differences which occur in pronunciation between Hungarian and other Finno_Ugrian languages. Naturally the location where this occurred is highly speculative and unfortunately also very politically biased.

1930-1733 BC. The Amorite dynasty of Hamurabi (Semitic people)

1860-1492 BC The southern Mesopotamian Elamite Kingdom (non Semitic people)

1733-1163BC Kasite Empire (of Elamite -eastern origin, speaking a similar Elamite like tongue)

2000 BC Egyptian geographic references
call northern Mesopotamia which later becomes Subartu and Assyria by the designation of Magar. Remnants of this name/people in the Caucasus Mountain kingdoms lasts well into the Middle Ages. The Turanian inhabitants of the area are the Hurrians and Urartuans, who also create colonies in the central Asian Aral Sea region that is later known as Khwarezmia. "HURRI -land". The Hurrian and Urartuan language is also a non-Semitic, non-Indo European language like Ural-Altaic. It also has some small common vocabulary with Hungarian and Georgian. /See Wallace Budge, An Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Dover /

The Magyar name is fund in the Caucasus Mountain area for well over 2,000 years before the Central European resettlement. Naturally not in modern Hungarian spelling, especially since the Hungarian "gy" sound is unique and can only be approximated in other languages. Macar, Mazar, Madar are the most common early spellings of the name./ Viktor Padanyi, "Dentu Magaria", Buenos Aires/.

Even today one can find remnants of the Macur, Macar town names... along the Perbart- Askhaleh - Erzrumi road which was in ruins by the 6th century according to Bal'ami and Ibn -al-Athir and such Byzanteen writers as Theophylactus Simocata and Procopius. A fort by the name of Madar is also mentioned by the Arab writers from 739. Xenophon writes of the country of the Scythian Makar (Macron), in the 4th century BC. A Magariz town and Supri (Sabir) town are mentioned at the source of the Tigris and Euphrates area on the tablets of Asur-nazir-apli as well as the Khurki Monolith from 877BC. Ptolemi in the same area mentions a Mazara and Siavara (Sabir) cities six hundred years later. From this area 200Km to the east there is also a Madara urumi capital city in Urartu. This with four rings of walls surounding it. This area also has a Magarda river. Herodotus (500BC) mentions that in region there are a Matsien and Sapir people. Herodotus also mentions that south of the Rion River in the S.E. corner of the Black Sea there is a province called Magiya which belonged to the Armenian Satrapy. Cyrus the king of Persia has a general called Mazar who he appoints later to be governor of Sardes. The northern branch of the Euphrates river has a tributaries known as Karaso and Oltu river (also in Transylvania Koros and Olt) Here there is also a Madur Dagh mountain.

Armenian references Insidsian, Orbeli, Mezopei also talk of the Madsars. Mezopei: "The son of Liberit Darzaidsch offered grapes to the cloister of Calako in the valley of the Madsars. Orbeli: "In the town of the Madsars from only a single house ten people were carried away to slavery."

Therefore references from Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo, Cicero, Ptolemeus, Plinius, Prokopius, Theophanes Jordanedes, Priscos Rhetor, Zakarias Rthetor all mentioned the Sabirs and or Magyars in the Caucasus Mountains and later next to the northern Black Sea. Many of these references will be subsequently mentioned. It should also be mentioned that the Ugor and Onogur term associated also with the Hungarians (ugor, onogur>>Hungarian) also comes from the Caucasus Mountains first.

ca 1766 BC China
According to traditions which were eventually recorded, the old Chinese Hia dynastie's 17th member, Kia was removed from his throne due to his evil ways. The son of the emperor, Sunni returned with 500 members of his Hia nationality to his relatives the Hun. There are still Hia in China, whose language still has many common words with Hungarian. These may simply be common words within the Altaic languages that are also
common with Hungarian and therefore should not be treated as a direct link.

1000 BC Assyr Empire in Northern Mesopotamia grows to encompass much of the Near East and at times Egypt. The Assyr Empire is founded by Tiglapilasser.

c. 1100 BC The legends of turan, recorded by the Persian Ferdusi in his book of kings "Shaname"
The book talks of Afrasiab, the king of Turan [Also a Uygur dynasty] who is the ancestor of the Ephtalite (White) Huns.

F. Altheim "Das Alte Iran" writes that the Iranian Avesta's most archaic texts, the Gathas are still not understood by today's linguists. R. Stiehlel "Geschichte Mittelasiens im Altertum" writes in his book about the language of the old Avesta, and it becomes quite obvious that this language is closely tied to the ancient Altaic languages also. It is not surprising that this is the case since the newcomers to Iran settled over the older settled inhabitants from which it borrowed much and who are often associated with the Scythians, Turks and Finno_Ugrians in language. Many of these local people were Iranianized over time and as a consequence today we call certain Scythian nations also Iraninan in origin. Much of the early Persian literature found in Persepolis is not written in Iranian but in the language of the aboriginals speaking an Elamite language which up till the last century was also called Scythian.

Persepolis, Persia
In Persia on the walls of the royal palace of Persepolis are mentioned the following neighboring and subject peoples of the Empire. "Armenians, Cappadocians, Sapard [Sabir], Hun, .. as neighboring people. The text is "Darius Hystapes rex popularum bonorum posui. Hi adorationem igni mihi attulere: Choana, Media, Babilon, Asyria, Guthrata, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sapardia, Hunae."

484-425BC Herodotus
The Histories written by Herodotus were among the earliest mention of many nations which did not have a written history. It is also the first book which covers much of the known world at the time. One of his histories talk of the Persian king Cyrus and his war against the Greeks in the middle of the 6th century BC. This account mentions the people called the Makrons several times who lived next to Colchis and Cappadocia and also served as soldiers in the Persian army. There are many other subsequent references to them as Makar, Makron etc.

3rd century BC
The earliest occurrence of the Parthian name in the form of Aparnoi or Parnoi in Turan. According to the Armenian historians who served the Armenian dynasty of Parthian origin, the Parthian Arsac who founded the dynasty was of white Hun (Ephtalite) origin .

c 300BC The Caucasian Makar/Makron
A Greek military expedition against the Persians led by Xenophon crossed the mountains near Armenia.
They wanted to cross the lands of the Scythians to get to the Black Sea ports, however the people of the land
known as the Makrons stopped them on their border. They were ready to defend their country against the foreign army. One of Xenophon's soldiers understood their language, because he came from this area and was able to convince them that their intentions were simply to get home. After this the Makrons helped to escort them to their destination in a friendly manner. It took them three days march to cross their country. A memory of these people survives in the name of a nearby mountain called Makur Dagh.

230 BC The Parthian Arsac
The Persian king Selecud wins a battle against the Parthian Arsac, who retreats amongst the Aspasiac Scythians, near the Aral Sea. With their aid he reconquers his empire.

The Massa-Geta, [meaning hero-tribe] who also live in Balk are Kush. [Not Iranians!!] According to the Armenians Baktria is the land of the Kush and Balkh is its capital city, where the great Arsac set up his throne. The Parthian Scythians became the Persian and Armenian kings from which even the Byzanteens received capable rulers. In Armenia the Arsac dynasty ruled for about 600 years. On the column of Nisbi is engraved the following notice by Sebeos Herakleus
. " During the 11th year of rule of Antiochus the Partheans shook of the yoke of the Macedonians and the Ephtalite [white Hun] king's son became their new ruler. All the nations of Eastern and Northern Asia soon accepted his rule. King Arsac had four sons. One of them received the land of the Ephtalites, the second the land of the Hindus, the third the land of the Parthians, the fourth the Armenians." The term ARSAK in Hungarian is ORSAG, which in modern Hungarian is URSAG
meaning "LORD-SHIP/KINGSHIP", its older form ORSZAG today means "Kingdom, Realm, Country", this same word is found in Sumerian as KHURSAG & URUSAG. The term is not Iranian.

215BC Armenian Patriarch John
"The Sievortik people received their name from their ancestor Siev and their nation." In the province of Udi,
which today is called Otene the people originate from Kush the son of Ham, who are also known as Siev.
In this area is found the ancient city of Hunora-certa [certa=foundation in Armenian] . In this region during the Middle Ages there was also a province called Madjar Agadzor where Hungarians lived. The New Arab Encyclopedia calls these people who once lived here the ancestors of the Hungarians, who at one time were famous weapon smiths [Mecher=swordsmith] for the Persian kings. Similar to this region the mythical founder of Chorezmia next to the Aral Sea was also similarly named Siev-us.

Common early Georgian (capital) and later Hungarian (small) place names are found on an early map of Georgia.

2nd century BC sees a rise of the Hun Empire's puts pressure on the territory of Iran dislodging many Scythian nations who were also pushed west, including the Saka-Uraka whose kings' title was Makar.

1st Century BC Sakauraka tribe
Two medallions are found in India originating from the displaced Sakauraka tribe from Central Asia. The inscription of one of the medallions states:
1. "Turannountos Eraoy 2.Saka Kaganoi"
The second medalion states
"1. Yrkodoy Makaroy while side two is S.K. Ur "
If we tie this fact to the reference made by Greek writers to the Sakauraka, which stated that their name "Sakauraka" means "Lord of the Saka, which in Hungarian would be pronounced "Saka Urak" also, while the term "Yrkodoy Makaroy" is nothing but "Ruling Makar" (Urkodo Magyar in modern Hungarian). The term "Saka Kaganoi" is again one of the earliest references to the "Kagan" term commonly used by the Altaic nations for their emperors. The Hungarian "Magyar" term originally was only used in reference to
the clan of the royal family.

130 BC Baktria
The Asi (Yazig) and Pasiani (Petchegen/Besenyo) and the Tocharian tribes break into Sogdiana and Baktria. The Sabir (Sabarol) tribe is also allied with them. In the next five years two Parthian emperor loose their lives in the wars against these mounted nomads. (Phraates 129BC, Artaban II 124BC, ..)
[Altheim: Weltgeschichte Asiens]
Later the Sakauraka tribe is also conquered by them. Both the Yas and Besenyo became an ethnic element of the Hungarian nations after their settlement in Hungary. The Besenyo maintained their hereditary symbolic ruler till the beginning of this century, the BEK.

127 BC Chinese records about the Kushan exodus
The Chinese record that the "Great Yüe Chi " tribes left their homelands in Kansu and moved to Western Turkestan. They had seven tribes which were lead by the Kushan tribe. (Possible connection to the Hungarian Kasi tribe) They were to later found the great Indo-Scythian empire of North India and Central Asia. Their rulers were called the Gula/Jula term common among Hungarians, Avars, Khazars and certain Hun tribes.

23-79 AD Plinius
"Indum accolunt MEGARI, .. URI, ABAORTA, OSI" talks of the Magars, Avars ?, and Yazig.

95 AD
Chinese military expedition lead by PanChao reaches as far west as the Caspian Sea in their mad drive to conquer the Huns. After the return home of this great military leader PanChao dies within a year. The western provinces all revolted against China and the power vacuum created was again filled by Hun rule.

139 AD Ptolemaus Claudius geographer writes of the Huns next to the Dnyper in Eastern Europe calling them Khuni and Suni. (note Khuni is the clan/national designation while Suni is probably from Senyu, their ruler).

150 AD Ptolemi
The central Asian Magyars are mentioned living next to Parthia. "Quae autem juxta Parthiam et Caramaniam desertam Mazorani tenent." Other ancient maps show the south eastern shores of the Caspian Sea a nation called the Maxera and a similarly named river. This was probably their eastern most outposts.

214 AD Choronei Mozes, "The history of Armenia"
Talks of the Huns, Chasi, and Makar/Magyar near the Sarmatian Scythians. Perhaps this is the earliest
settlements of the Hungarians near Baskiria, who are also called Mozeryan (ie Magyar) by the Russians and who were the last nation to have a Sarmatian tribe. Herodotus also has the Royal Scythians next to the Sarmatians.. but the Sar-mata term can simply mean royal-lands.
" Sarmatai pars altera orientalibus Sarmatae finibus, Riphaeio monte, Tanai flume, Maeotide palude a Sarmata prima distinguitur, atque inde per Caucasos montes propter Iberian, Albanian versus Caspium Mare partient. hae autem gentes plurimae Sarmatiam alteran incolunt: Chasi (Kasi), Basili, Hunni, Guda-Makari,

214 AD Choronei Mozes
During the rule of the Parthian Valarsac (194-214AD) the Khazars and Barsil's combined armies under their king Surhab Venasep broke through the TZUR gates and crossed the Cyrus River to invade Armenia. These Valarsac defeated with his specially selected armies in some very bloody battles. The Khazars at this time lived east of the river Volga and the eastern parts of the Caspian Sea before the 5th century. The Huns also capture the city of Balk and made it their capital. The Armenians called Balk, Kush and the Greeks called it Hunuk as a result of this.

200 AD Dionisus Periegetes talks of the Huns living next to the Caspian Sea.

226 Persia. The Iranians defeat their Parthian rulers, although much of Northern Iran (Chorasan and Merv) remain under White Hun rule until 550 AD. Eastern Iran remains under the Parthian Surena rule while Armenia for 500 years remains under a Parthian dynasty. The Persians rule Fars, Susiana, Mesopotamia and parts of Media. Northern and Eastern Iran is under Hun rule and Persia often pays tribute to them.

350 AD The Huns engulf Baktria and Eastern Iran and Afghanistan. The white Hun Ephta tribe is the ruling tribe (Greek Ephta, Chinese Yetha). The Persian Bukhani Kate dictionary states the meaning of Haital to mean "big, powerful" in the dialect of Bukhara, which in Hungarian is also "Hatal-mas". The MAS suffix is an archaic Ural-Altlaic-Dravidian-Sumir term for "hero/brave". The Iranian linguists believe this simply means "big".

352 AD Chronicle of Derbent (Caucasus)
"70 years before the birth of Mohamed (352AD), the uncountable people of the Magors apeared, who came from the area north [north-west] of Tibet and descended on the plains of Astrakan, here they split into two branches, one of which went north east to live along the river Volga (Magna Hungaria of old maps or more properly Baskiria). The other branch went further west and also founded the city of Madjar [in the Cuban between the Caspian and Black Sea]. " It should however be mentioned that the Madar, Mazar and Makar variations of this name appear for a very long period before this in the Caucasus Mountains, the route by which these eastern Magars supposedly came. However the Saka-Uraka Scythians, whose kings were called
Makar did indeed come from the area described by this chroniclers.. these can be viewed as the most eastern component of the so called Makar/Magar/Magyar designation. These people were not Huns, not Turkic and not even Altaic in origin. However the Hun tidal wave caught up with them anyways and they were engulfed in their new empires.
The Caucasian Magyars name is recorded by the Byzanteen Emperor as Subartu Asfalu.

352 AD

372AD Europe
Under the leadership of Balimir their king, the Huns push toward the west and defeat the Alans. They absorbed a portion of their nation. The Hungarian legend of the miraculous hind claims the Alan/Hun/Magyar mixing in the form of kidnapping of the Alan women occurred next to the Sea of Meotis, which is believed by some historians to be the Aral or Caspian Sea.

374 The Huns conquer the eastern kingdom of the Ostrogoths and take away the territory of the Visigoths, which they had not ruled for a long time. This was in the area of today's Ukraine.

378 AD A Scythian general in the Eastern Roman Empire who is from the Saka-uraka tribe "Royal Scythians" is also called Modar-(es). [remember the Makar title of the Saka Uraka rulers.]

404AD The Hun ruler Uldin helps the Roman general Honorius against the Ostrogoths.
409 The Huns occupy the area of Bulgaria.

420-425AD The White Huns in Transoxiana
The white Huns "Euthalite" arrive in Transoxiana near the Amu-darya and Sir Darya rivers in Central Asia.
Their kings are called Kagans and their queen the Katun.
These are the ancestors of the Avar Huns who later enter Europe.

434 The king of the Huns is Ruas (Ruga or Rugulas) dies and his grandson Atilla becomes king.

441- Pharbi Lazarus.
The Persian king Izdegerd II. organizes a campaign against the Huns, who are called Kush and for a full two years he battles them without success.

442-444 The Hun war against the Persians under the rule of Jazdagard I.
448 The White Huns establish an empire in the Oxus River Basin.
Priscos Rhetor the Greek envoy often calls them the Kidarite Huns. The Kidara name comes from their leader, which the Hungarian chronicles call Kadar and derives from the Samanid clan. (Samanid dynasty of Chwarezmia)

450-451 The Second Hun-Persian War during the rule of Jazdagard II.

451 Atilla leads his armies to the Rhine and then across central Germania to Gallia (France). Here the Roman alliance and Hun alliance fight the famous battle of Catalaun. This battle turns out to be a stalemate and the spread of the plague also forces both armies to return home. The following year Attic leads an assault on the Italian peninsula.

453 The death of Atilla and the battles of succession so weaken his empire that it cannot contain the revolt of the various Germanic elements.

454 Another White Hun and Persian War under Jazdagard II.

458-484 Feruz the Persian king asks for military help from the Huns, who under their leader Fa-ghana (according to Firdusi) or other eastern writers Khusna-vaz help.

460 The eastern UAR and the western HIUN tribes unite and the Hepthal becomes their ruling clan. The European UAR and Hunnoi Avar Hun groups are of this same origin.

461 Avar-Hun Legend
"A great fog arose from the sea scaring people and this was followed by countless number of vultures descending on the people. For this reason they had to leave this land and were forced to attack the Sabirs. Because the Sabirs lost their lands they in turn attacked the Saragur, Ugor and Onogurs. These in turn asked for an alliance and land from Byzanteum." This legend is also found in similar form in the old Hungarian Chronicles also describing the Hungarian migration. The vultures are often explained as the Turks who defeated and conquered the Avars forcing them to flee. A lot of them died in these battles and some 200,000 left their lands. In their westward migration the Avars absorbed many of the smaller fragmented Hunish tribes like the Utigur and Kutigurs as well as the Ugor nations (Saragur, Onogur, Ugor) and the Sabir elements. Their main tribes were the Auar [Avar], Chun [Hun], Kotzagir .

463 Priscos Rhetor, Greek envoy
The Avars attack the Sabirs, these in turn are forced to attack their neighbors the Sara-Gurs (White Ogurs), then Ugors and Onogurs who move to the area of the Black Sea. The Ogur term in the Bulgar and Hunish dialects means tribe/nation. It is from the Onogur name that the Hungarian name is derived.

463 The Ogur Hun nations cross the Volga River (Saragur, Onogur, Ugor).

Zakarias Rhetor, church historian
Lists the nations which were converted to Christianity by the Armenians in the Caucasus. Amongst these are the Onogurs, Ogurs, Sabir, white Ogurs, Bulgars and White Huns. These came under the guidance of the bishop of the Dori Goth Metropolis who was also called the bishop of the "Huns and Onogurs". The references also mention the Onogurs living at the same time in the Caucasus and the Crimean Peninsula.

463 Zacharias Rhetor: The Onogurs first cross the river Volga in 463.

484 North east Persia. War between the Huns and Persians during the rule of Sufra.

485 The Avar Huns moves west after growing pressure from Persian and Turks.

525 Zonaras: Mentions that the Romans, under the rule of Justinius asked for military help from a nation in the Caucasus Mountains called Hongre against the Persians.

552 or according to others in 567 the Turks conquer the Central Asian Avar-Hun empire. The turncoat Avar Hun chief Katalpus may have been one reason that this Turk-Persian alliance had such a sucess. According to the Byzanteens the Avars who entered Europe were originally the servants of the original real Avars living on the periphery of Persia. For this reason they separated these two nations. [originally the Turks were the servants of the Avar-Huns?] While they called the European Avars "fake" avars, there is no evidence that they were not the same people that also lived in Afghanistan and northern India. The term "fake" Avars have something to do with the fact that the original Avar or Apar term designated a Scythian and not a Hun people who lived in Central Asia before the Huns came. The Parthians.

555 Thephilaktos Simokata states that before the Turks came to power in Asia they first conquered the Hephtalites (white Huns), then the Avars, then the Ogurs. After their defeat, one portion of the Avars moved to areas north of China while the Ogur tribes which were also called Uar and Hunnoi went toward Europe.

Menandros: The language of the Avars is the same as that of the Huns, but they wear long braids with ribbons in it in two braids, a habit which they borrowed from the Turks.

[While the most inner core ruling clans of the Avars are somewhat mongoloid (Juan-Juan Hun?) the majority were Caucasian, according to Hungarian archeologists.]

500 Kiev Chronicles. The founders of the city of Kiev according to legends .. "There were three brothers.., they built this city and died here. We live here today and pay tribute to their relative nation, the Khazars. The clan of Kii built Kiev..."

527-528 Johan Malalas & Theophanes Byanteus
Talks of the revolt of the Huns of the Crimea is found in two versions in the Chronicle of Malalas and Theophanes. They inform us of the King of the Huns who converted to Christianity

558 /Verdansky/ By the beginning of the year 558 the Avars reached the confines of the North Caucasian area and came into contact with the Alans. The Alan king, who was in friendly relations with the Byzantine Empire, conveyed news of the approach of the Avars to the commander of the Byzantine army in Transcaucasia, Justinus; who, grasping the importance of the news, immediately sent a messenger to Constantinople. The Byzantine diplomats made a quick decision to enter into negotiations with the newcomers, with the object of using them against the Hunno-Bulgars who at this time were pressing hard on Constantinople.

559/Verdansky/ The Sabiri in the eastern section of the North Caucasian area were the first "Hunnic??"tribe to be attacked. Having crushed the Sabiri, the Avars raided the country of the Utiguri (huns), on the eastern shores of the Sea of Azov in 560. The Kutigur khan (probably Zabergan) became a vassal of the Avars. [ Note the Sabiri were aboriginal to the Caucasus and were only converted by the eastern Huns to be their vassals.]

562 /Verdansky/ The Avars entered Dobruja in 562, where they decided to stay.

The Avar-Huns are white skinned, have an organized kingship. Their life is not wild/nomadic but live in cities.
[However today because their royal clans were found to have mongoloid elements all of them are mistaken to be mongoloids.]

According to Prokopiusz the land of the Alans stretched along the Caucasian mountain range eastward to the "Caspian Gates". To the south the neighbors of the Alans were the Sevans, and to the west the Abasgians; however, between the Alans and Abasgians Procopius mentions still another tribe, the brkhians. Since the Abasgians were converted to Christianity in 540, the faith must have begun to spread among the Alans as well, soon after. East of the Alans in Dagestan were the Sabiri .

Ptolemy: The Avars sacrifice horses to their god. They live north of Persia. They are not in contact with the other Hun nations. They are white Huns.

566 Bishop Gregory
Commenting on a raid into Frankish territory in 566 AD, Bishop Gregory writes: "Just as the Frankish army was about to join battle, the Huns (i.e. the Avar-Huns) who were highly skilled in necromancy, made a number of phantom figures dance before their eyes and so beat them easily."

568 Theophylaktos Symokata
The avars are composed of two nations: the Uar and the Hion tribes, they were also joined near the end of the 6th century by the Zabender, Tarnach and Kotzagerek (Hun). During the 7th century the Bulgars who were also part of their empire revolted. These six groups were joined around 670 by the Onogurs which were also a member element of the Hungarians. The Onogurs themselves were composed of three elements

During the Avar age various elements, with strong eastern physical traits settled into the Carpathian Basin, amongst them there were some mongoloid, pamirian, turanid and eastern Mediterranean type[often associated with Iranians ]. /Gyula Laszlo, archeologist/

The king of the Lombard German tribe asked for the alliance of the Avars - Huns against the Gepids in Hungary. The Avars defeated the Gepids and since the Lombards became nervous about the nearness of the powerful Avars they also left the territory of Hungary to the Avars.

The Avars are called Abaria by some and Aparnai by Strabo. Ptolemaus mentioned that in Hyrcania there is a Abarbina city and in Aria there are Oberes people. They found their other allied peoples, the Ugors and Sabirs, already living in the Caucasus Mountains and the Cumans in Southern Russia before they came west.

581 In 581 a Turkish division which had earlier subjugated the Kutrigur Huns, besieged Cherson but lifted the siege without taking the city and went back to Turkestan to take part in the civil war there. For about 20 years the Turkish state was weakened by internal dissension among the khans. They were able to maintain only the control of eastern North Caucasia. As the result of this the western portion of the Turks seceded from the Turkic Empire.

582 The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian
The coming of the Khazars and Bulgars was borrowed from the 6 volume church history of the cloister of Peskin by John the Ephesian. Thirty thousand Scythians were lead for 65 days across the mountain passes of the Imaon Mtns (northern Iran). They came during winter because the rivers were frozen. They reached the Tanaisz (volga) river which flows into the Meotis (Sea of Azov) and into the Pontus (Black Sea). As soon as they reached the border of the Romans one of them called Bulgarios separated with 10,000 men from his brothers, crossed the Tanais and the Danube, which also flows into the Pontus (Black Sea). He sent a message to Marikios, the (Byzanteen) emperor, and asked to be given land in which to settle. For this reason he and his people became the vassals of the Byzanteens. The emperor gave him upper and lower Moesia, and Dacia. The remainder Scythians, the other two brothers, settled with their people in the land of the Alans which was called Berzylia, territories whose cities were built originally by the Romans. The Bulgars and Puguryeh (called Ugor by others) who were originally the city dwellers of Barzilya, became in time Christians. As soon as this foreign race occupied the country they began calling themselves Khazars, after the eldest brother's name. This nation became strong and branched out.

590 Ugors: The Ugors in 590 destroy the city of Aemonia in Friaul.
/Monum. Germanieae Historica, S.R. Longobart et Ital, Hanover, 1878/

600 Sukralla Arab historian about the Magyars
There is constant war between the Slavs and Magyars. The Magyars always defeat the Slavs and take prisoners from them which they sell to the Byzanteens. .. The Turkic nations have the following branches:
Guz (Turkic Uz), Kaji, Kirghiz, Sari, Kimak, Bedsenak and Madsar (Magyar).

c600 Bulgars 10,000 Bulgar horsemen arrive in Pannonia to the court of Bayan kagan. This was but a small part of the Bulgars which settled along the Danube.

622 Avar Byzanteen War
The Avar-Hun armies attack Byzanteum, but suffer a devastating defeat. The consequence of this defeat was that several elements of their empire broke away. The western Slavs revolted in 623 under the leadership of Samo who created a short lived empire including parts of Austria, Czech and Moravian lands. Samo 623-662. Their empire was terminated when the Avars of the Carpathian Basin united with their eastern Avar relations and the Onogurs. The river Enns again became their western border. The Kutri-gur Huns also separated from the Avar Empire. The Kutrigur Khan adopted Christianity in 619 during his visit to Byzanteum.

/Verdansky/ The Utigur and Kutrigur (?Bulgar) tribes again joined forces because they were being hard pressed by the Avars and by the Turks. It must also be noted that the Utiguri might count on the support of the Onoguri an Ugrian (Magyar) tribe which had been in friendly relations with them since the sixth century./Moravchik/ Such was the background of the unification of the Bulgar and Ugrian tribes in the Pontic and Azov steppes.

632 Nikephorus
The Bulgar Kubrat united the other Hun fragments in the vicinity of the Azov Sea. In these nations the Onogurs played a dominant role

626 George Hamortolos
The Byzanteen Empire was attacked simultaneously by the Avars and Persians. The emperor sought outside allies and asked the Khazar Khan who accepted the alliance. In 627 he led his army personally into Iberia in the Caucasus Mtns and besieged the city of Tiflis. Heraclius on his part set forth for Tiflis from Lazica (western Georgia). The allies met in the vicinity of Tiflis and Heraclius entertained the kagan at a sumptuous banquet after which he presented the kagan with his golden dinner service. The siege continued for two months without results however. Tired of inactivity the khagan returned home leaving behind a corps of his troops, 40,000 men. It is probable that this corps consisted chiefly of White Ugrians (Sara-guri), who were Khazar vassals. /George Hamortolos/

The White Ugrians (Hungarians) assisted Heraclius in their war against the Persians./Verdansky/ [ Verdansky generally equates Ugrian and Bulgar and Onogur as one.]

634-635 Kubrat the ruler of the Bulgars revolts against Avar-Hun rule and wins. The remaining Avars in the eastern part of the kingdom and the Onogurs leave and join the Western Avar kingdom leaving the east to the Bulgars.

651-652 Arab troops broke through the pass of Derbent to the north and invaded the north Caucasian area. The Khazars attacked them near Balanjar and administered a serious defeat to the Arab invaders.

In 683 a strong Khazar army invaded Armenia and defeated the Arab troops stationed there.

In 680 the Khazars after a decade of tenacious fighting conquered the Onogurs of the North Caucasus area. Amongst them by tens of thousands were Khwarezmian refugees driven from their homelands by the spreading Muslim Arab conquerors. The southern pressure places many nations in a trap with the only way out leading toward Europe. [ Whole Uygur cities in Central Asia had also been massacred by the Arab conquerors. ] / Viktor Padanyi, "Dentu Magaria"

668-685 The death of Kubrat
The powerful leader of the Bulgars, Kubrat dies in the time of Constantine IV. The ruler of Great Bulgaria tried in vain to direct his 5 sons not to separate but keep the nation united. Unfortunately after their father's death they distributed the nation amongst the sons. As a consequence they became weak enough for the neighboring Khazars to take over rule and the eldest son's people were moved the northern Volga-Kama river region, which became known as "Magna Bulgaria". Next to them another Onogur sub-branch was also settled which in the 13th century was visited by a Hungarian monk Julianus, who stated they talked "pure Hungarian" and were easily understood.

Another Kubrat son, Kuber moved to Pannonia around 670-680, where in association with another Onogur branch they allied themselves with the Avar-Huns. These Bulgars and Onogurs lived in the south-eastern part of Pannonia near the Morava and the Vardar rivers. Their main city was Sirmium, which they called Onoguria. The Bulgars were settled in the border areas as border guards, they founded Nandor White Fort (Nandorfehérvar) In a 1366 document it was called Nandor-albenses.

The third son of Kubrat, Asparuk settles in the lower segment of the Danube founding Bulgaria. This was called by Theophanes in 813 "Palaia Bulgaria y megali", the first and old Bulgaria.

The fifth son of Kubrat settled in Ravena, Italy in 679 in Pentapolis.

In the 670 time frame a new people arrived in the Carpathian Basin and a great change occurred in the earlier Avar-Hun archeological remains. The burial customs changed, the ceremonial belt decorations changed, the techniques of the metalwork changed. /Gyula Laszlo, archeologist/

In 714 the Arab general Muslima seized Derbent in the Caucasus Mtns.

717 The Khazars struck back once more by invading Azerbaidjan.

735-743 Baladhur "Futuh al-Athir"and Ibn Al-Athir Chronicles (from Egypt).
Refer to these early conquests in the Caucasus Mountains including the territory of Al-Laks south of the Caucasus. Western Armenia and Azerbedjan. The chronicle mentions the two rivers Samur and Shabiran [Sabir] .. separated by a mountain range called Pejbart. From 735 to 743 the Arab Empire's northern ruler, the Damascus Kaliph appointed the ruling families member called Marwan to guard the northern Caucasian frontiers and he also leads several armies against Khazaria north of the Caucasus. The armies of Marwan are held up by a very determined local resistance in 734-740. Almost daily skirmishes are fought by the locals mainly of Al-Laks, lead by their local leader Upas Ibn-Madar which is Opos fia Madjar in modern Hungarian. The Opos clan is a famous Hungarian clan. [The place name Al-Laks existed in Assyrian times as the city of the Hurrians known as Ala-Lakh, perhaps this was the same place?]

These Arab references tell of the armies of Marwan who after a long war surrounded the area of Al-Laks (Lak is living space in Hungarian] The remnants of the armies of Opos Magyar then defended themselves in a local fort which Marwan and his forces sieged in 739 AD. When the situation in the fort became untenable Opos and a handful of his followers broke out one night and broke through the ring of attackers and they headed north to the Khazar ruler. These and their northern relatives who lived there before the Khazars. They also took part in the later Khazar -Arab wars of 751. They even continued this war without Khazar support in a vain attempt to free their Sabir homelands. The Khazar forces crossed the Caucasus in three places while the Sabir forces from the Meotis/Azov Sea were with the Western armies of the Khazars which included Onogur elements. This army quickly reached the Caucasus Mt. and Rion River. As they approach the region many of the men of the area allied themselves with the invading army. The old Sabir capital which according to Greek and Roman sources was called Gudea (an ancient Sumir king's name). They approach the fortification of the area on the banks of the river Kur covering an area of over 1,000 Km.

The Arab governor who is Mansur at the time was in great difficulties. He is of the Omayidas house who is a counter Caliph that gained much land and cannot expect much outside support . Mansur looses the key battle and he also falls in battle. The Omayid house selects a successor who is in no better position when the Abbasid house puts pressure on him also. Then he joined the Khazar side with the agreement that he be allowed to stay as governor under Khazar hegemony. This terminates the war on the Khazar side, however the Sabirs continued their fight. The liberated territories then remained again under Sabir rule for a few years. However the local Arab infighting ends with Bagdad becoming dominant. This is followed by new wars to win back "their" previous conquests in the wars of 755-756, during which the Sabirs loose their homelands again. Many more of the locals leave their ancestral lands and head across the Caucasus Mountains to the north to Dentu_Magyaria near the Azov Sea. The estimated amount of people leaving the area by al-Tabari was 50,000 people. /Viktor Padanyi, "Dentu Magyaria"

The Arabs attempt to maintain peaceful relations with the Khazars and even arrange a marriage with a royal Khazar princess in 758. However the wife dies next year in childbirth and soon afterwards the child dies also. The situation is very suspicious to the Khazars and they prepare for war against the Arab neighbors.

In this war the Sabirs fought in independent armies with their own leaders and generals. Their commander in chief was As-Tarkhan. Their approximate numbers were 10,000 men based on their estimated total population. The Khwarezmian refugees also had their own armies in this war.

The Sabir units quickly retook the area of Al-Laks. The Khazar armies with their Khwarezmian auxiliaries crossed the two Caucasian Gates and attacked the Arab areas, where the Kaliph quickly sent 20,000 men to aid the frontiers. They succeeded in reaching the forces of the governor and join his forces but still suffered a defeat from the northern invasion forces. The Arab military situation became so bad that the Kaliph has 7000 men released from prisons to create a new army to help the northern provinces.

The final stages of the war are not documented.. but in many years later the Arabs are again in control and are no attacking Byzanteen territories....

Verdansky/ Both toponymical and archaeological evidence likewise indicates that the Magyars stayed in Southern "Rusia" for a protected period which could be measured by decades or even centuries rather than by years. Had they merely paraded through the Pontic steppes without living there for a number of decades, they would hardly have left so many traces in local names and in the kurgan graves. An example is the buffer state of Lebedia (Hungarian Levente, Levedi) found as a village in Chigirin district of Kiev province; Lebedin in Braslav province (16th century) Lebedin in Kharkov province; Lebedinan in Tambov province; Lybed River discharging into the Dnieper at Kiev; two rivers of the same name in Chernigov and Riazan province. One of the tributaries of the Oka is called Ugra. Such town names ending with Kut are of Magyar origin, meaning Well . Kut Snezhkov of the Valki district, and Krasni Kut of the Bogodukhov district, both of the Kharkov province.

N. Fetich & V.V. Arendt have recently defined some of the antiquities found in certain settlements and grave sites of Kharkov, Tambov and Voronezh provinces as Magyar in origin.

750-850 The Petchegen Turks first appear in the records between 750 and 850 in the Steppes of Central Asia, when a Tibetan manuscript an Uygur emissary reports that they only have about 5,000 warriors. In 870 they are found along the lower legs of the Volga River. At this time they are fairly prosperous in horses, cattle, sheep, gold and silver dishes are all well known. This may have been the reason that the Uz Turks attack them in 893 after they lost much of their possessions. [There are however many references to a Scythian nation called similarly AS-PASIAC living near Chorezm next to the Aral Sea much earlier ] Hungarian "Besenyo"= Turk "Petchegen".. The BESE term means sea hawk, in Hungarian and in Parthian and was their totemic designation.]

795-803 Charlamene and his armies attacks the Avar Empire and even the royal fortresses of the Kagan following internal strife followed by Bulgarian revolt against the Avar Empire, which weakened their defenses. The Onogurs and Bulgars split off the Avar Empire and in 804-814 organize an independent state. Their leader Krum defeated the Byzanteen emperor Nikephorus and beheads him to make a cup from his skull. The son of Krum is Salan and his son Simeon Czar of Bulgaria.

Based on Eginhartus, Vita Caroli Magni, Caput XIII "Since the memory of man there has not been a war (with the Avar Huns), during which the Franks became so much richer, because one could say that before this they were poor.."

In 791 Charlamene returns from his Avar offensive through "Sar-var"(yellow/royal fort in Hungarian). This same Sarvar in 805 is also still in existence. Theodor Avar Khan asks Charlamene for new rights to settle between Sarvar and Heimburg. (J.F. Böhmer, Regestra Chronologico diplomatica, Frankfurt). The Avars at this time were already Christians. Charlamene wrote to his wife: "Pippin killed so many Avars, that no man had ever seen such butchery before. They took the Avar fortifications and robbed it, then spent the night there until the following morning at 9."

799 The Avar Tudun (a high official amongst the Avars) revolts against the forced Christianization of his people, even though he already accepted the faith in 796. As a punishment he and most of his clan is butchered.

811 Charlamain uses one third of all his armies to attack the "spiteful/ hating Slavs and Avars". In this year Kanizanki the Avar ruler, the provincial governor the "tudun" and the leading men of the Slavs living next to the Danube appear in front of the ruler. In 819 the Avars also take part in an uprising of the governor of Lower Pannonia, Lindevik.

In 822 the Avars also send emissaries to the Aixlachapelle parliament, and also in 822 they also appear in the Frankfurt gathering.

The 843 Verdun agreements also mention the Avars. This is the time when the Frank Empire is divided.
The Salzburg church chancellery documents from 871 states: "The avars still hold their lands which was granted to them by the emperor."

809 The Khazar king adopted the Jewish faith during the rule of Harun Al Rashid, when from the Muslim lands and later from the Roman Empire large numbers of Jewish immigrants came to live in the Khazar lands. Armanus, the king of the Rum (eastern Romans) just as in the year of the hidsra 332 (934) tried to forcefully convert the Jews . Because of this they fled to the Khazars. After the collapse of the Khazar Empire many of these Jews and their proselytes moved toward the west, to Poland and afterwards to Hungary.

825 Khazar - Arab war in which the Khazars loose.

830 The Khazars build the fort of Sarkel "white fort" against the Magyars (Majgar), with the help of the Greeks. Kamlij is also a Khazar city.

850 Armenian Patriarch John
In the province of Udi, in northern Armenia south of the river Kur live the Sabirs. The ancestor of this nation is the son of Ham, Kush, from whom they obtained their name KUS or SEVORDIK, from their ancestor SYEVA. In Armenian the sjevardik means "dark boys" which in other tongues is sometimes Ham. The Armenian Agathangelus mentions also that there are Huns living amongst the peoples of the Caucasus Mtns.
The Hamites are mistakenly believed to be Africans, since there are many early references to them in Western Asia and Central Asia.

The seven Magyar rulers of the seven nations, elected the son of Almos, Arpad, to be their chief leader (the Gyula). They lifted him ceremoniously on top of a shield to symbolize that henceforth he will stand above them. Afterwards they mixed their blood in a common chalice and took a blood oath of allegence to his rule. The most important part of this "covenant of blood" was that all future rulers shall be elected from the progeny of Almos. That all that they gain with common strength they shall share equally, and that the princely men and their progeny who elected Arpad to rule above them shall never be left out of the council of their king or the leading offices of the their kingdom.

The Byzanteen Emperor Constantine Purporigenitos wrote:
The people of the Turks (which is what he called the Magyars) gained their lands near the Khazars. But at this time they did not call themselves Turks, but Sabartu-Asfalu. They lived together with the Khazars for three years. They fought together with the Khazars. The chief of the Khazars, the Khagan, gave a royal Khazar bride to their first vovoid Lebedi, because of his bravery and alliance. .... Originally the Petchegens lived near the Volga River, next to the Magyars (west) and Uzez (east). The leading clan of the Petchegens was called Kangar, because he was more gallant and more noble than the rest. This is the meaning of the name Kangar. The tribes of the Petchegens are the follows:
1)Ertem 2)Tzur, 3)Gila, 4)Kulpe, 5)Kharoboe, 6)Thalmat, 7)khoplon, 8)Tzoplon. The nations of the Magyars are the following 1)Khabars 2)Neke 3)Megere 4)Kurtu-Germat 5)Tarjan 6)Kari 7)Kasi. <note the actual leading tribe is not the first but the center

860 Luis German? in a document from 860 mentions a mountain by the name "marcha uengeriorum" and also calls the Avars by the name "Uenger". /Gyula László, "Kettös Honfoglalás", Budapest)
Another warpath from Slavonia across Friaul to Lombardia (N. Italy) is also called "strada ungarorum".

867 St Ciryl, Venzia
The Moravian-pannon legend talks of St Ciryl stating that the Avars have a unique written script just as the Arabs, Armenians and Goths also have their own.
St Ciryl also encounters a Magyar army in the Crimea around 860.

Nestor Chronicle (Kiev)
First came the white Ugors during the time of the Avars then came the black Ugors during the time of Oleg
Ugor being the Slavic term for Hungarian.

870-920 Djayhani
The most complete description of the Hungarians before their settlement in Hungary is from Djanhani, a historian from Bukhara. His original manuscript did not survive. He mentions the Hungarians around 870 under the Magyar name. Other later historians used his references like Ibn Rusta (ca930) and Gardizi (ca1050-1053). One of Djayhani's statements is that the Magyars are a Turkic people .. they have many plowed lands, ... they are of handsome outer appearance with much noticeable wealth.

In a letter of the Khazar Khagan Joseph mentions those nations who he considered the nearest relations to his own. The letter mentions the Ugors, Avars, Barsils and Onogurs who he ties to the Biblical ancestor Togarma, because the common Hungarian - Uz - Khazar etc mythology of the ruling family being derived from the mythical hawk of God called Hungarian Turul .. (Turkic Togrul).. from this one can see the correspondence with Togar-ma.

880 The Legend of Methodus
"After arriving to the area of the Danube, a Magyar king wished to see him (the priest). Although some of his followers warned him that he will not survive the encounter without pain and torture, he went to visit him anyway. The king however treated him with respect and reverence, and ceremonial joy like befitting a head priest. The Hungarian leader talked with him like befitting such a splendid person, he released him with the following words: father I beseech you to remember me in your saintly prayers."

888 "Conversio Baguariorum et Carantanorum"(Monumenta Germania Historica, XI. Band, 12)
During the rule of Charlamenes descendant there already is a bishop called Hungarus mentioned in a document from 888. /Götz, "Keleten Kél a Nap", Vienna.

887-901 The Yearbooks of Fulda 680-901 [German]
Includes the Magyar events of 887-901, including the statement "The Avars who we call Magyars".
Similarly the History of the Saxons, by Windukin (925-1004) states "We now call the Avars Magyars."

This of course shows a great lack of precision when dealing with the eastern horsemen and lumping them together.

886-912 Leo the Wise, Emperor of Byzantium writes in his book on Tactics
He writes of the tactics of the many known neighboring nations. He calls the Magyars Türk and writes: "The makeup of the Magyar armies is similar to the other Scythian nations.. The shoot their arrows from horseback while turning backwards on their mounts. [also called the Parthian shot] "

896 Hamburg Codex
Pothius Byzanteen Patriarch mentioned that Almos the leader of the Magyars was of the religious of Mani, that is Arian. During the time of bishop Izrael they adopted the Christian religion (this was well before the resettlement). However the patriarch is still annoyed by the fact that there are Magian priests also amongst them (Garabonc=Karapan). Izrael also became the first bishop to work in Khazaria

899 Transdanubia is finally occupied by the Magyars, which was followed by attacks against Bavaria in 900 AD against Regensburg. /Chronicle of Fulda. "The Magyars returned to Pannonia and the Bavarians built up their fortifications in Ennsburg against them. This year the Magyars also attacked the Italian Peninsula, where after they turned back from Adda they defeated Berengar the prince of the Friul at the river Brenta. Afterwards their armies split into two parts: one of them marched against Venice, the other army scouted all the way up to the Swiss Alps."

903 Lazus, A 15th century Austrian wrote [long after the fact??] that based on a document from 1,000 AD "The Hun-Avars turned away from their Christian faith and adopted the Magyar Pagan belief." A rather unlikely fact since the documents of the time claimed the Magyars to be Christian also, with other monotheistic religions also represented like Manichean, Muslims and Magians. This probably means that they renounced German domination of their religious hierarchy.

904 The death of Kursan (or Kushan) the theocratic Magyar ruler. [more religious than actual rule] The Germans invited Kursan, who lived in the fort of Buda, to a banquet and then murdered him. This probably had a lot to do with the many years of wars against the German Empire which followed.

906 Summer. The Slav tribes near the river Emba called the Magyars to help them against their struggles against the Germans.

907 Pannonia. Prince Luitpold of Bavaria with many of his bishops suffered such a serious defeat at the hands of the Magyars that the Franks had to give up any thought of ruling Pannonia. Those that remained alive were chased and ran back. The German king Luis wanted revenge against the Magyars who also defeated his armies near Pozsony. Afterwards the Magyars crisscrossed most of Germany and returned home with a huge booty. Árpád the Magyar ruler died in the year of the battle of Pozsony.

908 The Magyar armies break into Turingia and also burn Bremen.

910 The united Bavarian, Frank and Alleman armies are also defeated by the Magyars who afterwards send raids as far west as Rhine River.

912 Arnulf the Bavarian prince was able to defeat one Hungarian raiding party near the Inns. This defeat was made possible by the fact that the German princess often utilized various Magyar war parties in their own services.

916 Arnulf asked for the aid of the Magyar army against the German king Arnulf. At this time the Magyar and ally Germans looted Saxony reaching as far as Bazel, and Alsance and Lotargia.

917 Konrad attacked the Bavarian Arnulf, who asked for asylum amongst the Magyars. Again Magyar armies helped him recover his princedom. In the following years the Magyar raids were directed predominantly against Italy because it appears that they were able to get a peace treaty to their liking with the Bavarians.

913-959 Constantine Purporigenitos, In his work "Ruling of the Empire" he calls Hungarians Turks
"The 3 tribes of the Kabars settled with the Turks in the (now) land of the Petchegens."

921-922 Ibn Fadlan
The language of the Khazars does not resemble the language of the Turks or the Persians. The capital city of the Khazars, is Itil (after 750AD). The city is located on both banks of the river. Their king's name is "Jelek" [Magyar Gyula] and "Bak" [Magyar Bek, Turkic BEG]. The majority of the Khazar customs are in contradiction with the Muslim, Jewish and Christian customs. Some claim that the Khazars are from the Jadsuds (Jasz=Alans) and the Madsuds (Magyars) [because they lived in their lands earlier]. The western shores of the Caspian were earlier Sabir areas while west of them were the Alans.

921-922 Ibn Fadlan
The language of the Khazars is not like the Turks or the Persians. They call the capital of the Khazars Itil (after 750). The capital city is located on both sides of the river. Their king's name is "Jelek" [Hungarian Gyula], and "Bak". The customs of the Khazars is on whole is unlike the Muslims, Jews or Christian customs. Some claim that the Khazars are from the Jadsusds (Yas=Allans) and the Madsuds (Magyars) [Since they were in this area before the Khazars came. The earlier homeland of the Khazars was the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea while the western shores were Sabir lands.]

921 The raiding Magyar armies went as far as Verona in Italy, when Berengar asked for their aid against his own lords. The lords were defeated. In 922 they again attacked Apulia.


924 In alliance with Berengar the Magyar armies invaded Italy again. They conquered the city of Padua, they entered Switzerland, Southern France and from there Lombardy before returning home. They also attacked Germany. While their armies were raiding Thuringia they captured the German king, Henry the fowler. Afterwards they forced a peace treaty for 9 years and also a yearly tribute from the Germans.

926 In alliance with Hugo the baron of Province they broke into Lombardy against Rudolf. and to Tuscia and regions of Rome. Another army was in Southern Germany (Saint Gallen) then Alsance and Lothargia. The 9 year treaty with the Magyars was used by Henrik to build up his own armies and introduce many eastern improvements to counter the Magyar military superiority, then to defy the payment of further tribute.

Hudud-Al Alam Persian Manuscript "Regions of the World" 372BC-982AD period
The country of the Sarir (Avars or Sabirs), which on the west was bounded by Byzantium, was in the south coterminous with the Muslim possessions in the Caucasus, i.e. with Darband and southern Dagestan, and not with Armenia, as our author takes it. To the north and west of the Sarir lived the Alans whose land

933 A large Magyar army broke into Saxony and Thuringia, at the request of local rulers. They were defeated by the German cavalry at Sonderhausen and Merseburg on March 15th. This was the first major defeat of a Magyar military expedition, and was apparently an unexpected trap. In the next year Magyar armies were raiding Byzanteum as far as Constantinople. Then the following year they were raiding in Southern France.

995-972 the rule of Takson

958 The Magyars attack Constantinople, but suffer a defeat. They continue to attack Macedonia with mixed success.

972-997 The rule of Geza. During his reign many western knights also come to settle in Hungary.

973 Geza sends emissaries to Quedlinburg to ask for Christian missionaries from Otto I. Due to this request the Passau bishop Pilgrim visits Hungary many times. The second marriage of Geza with Adelhaid, Polish princess. In 974 Otto dies and II Otto is aided by Geza against Henrik II, prince of Bavaria.

977 Many German priests who helped create a strong resentment amongst the Hungarians left the country fearing persecution. In the following year the Magyars broke into the German Empire from their fort at Melk. In 984 the German Baron Lipot occupied Melk to prevent further raids and pushed back the borders with Hungary to the mountain of Szarhegy.

994 Bishop Adalbert continued the missionary work of Pilgrim. It was at this time that the son of Geza, VAJK was baptized. He became our king St Stephen.

997 the death of Géza. ("Gay-za")